Prevalence of root caries in relation to various risk factors in a sample of subjects aged (25-64) years in Erbil city: A cross sectional study
Backgrounds: Root surface caries is a significant oral public health problem among humans' due to improvements in health care, long life expectancy, and increasing demand to maintain oral health. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of root caries in subjects in Erbil city and its relation to various risk factors.
Subjects and methods: The study was conducted in twelve primary health care centers in different directions of the city. A total of 2600 subjects (1352 males and 1248 females) attending these centers aged 25-64 years old were examined. The following clinical parameters were evaluated: root caries index, plaque index, gingival index, unstimulated salivary flow rate, other related factors as behavioral habits, oral practices, and educational level were assessed by means of multiple choice questionnaires by direct interview.
Results: The results of this study showed that the prevalence of root caries was (22.3%) and the mean value of root caries was (33.650±16.504) in the whole sample with statistically significant age differences of both. Males were more prevalent in root surface caries than females with significant differences. Results showed that the mandibular teeth were more affected than the maxillary teeth, and that mandibular first molars were the mostly affected teeth by root caries. Prevalence of root caries was significantly associated with these risk factors: gingival index, plaque index, unstimulated salivary flow rate, educational level, wearing removable partial dentures, frequency of snacks, tooth brushing and frequency of tooth brushing, systemic disease and use of medication, while the results showed no association between prevalence of root caries and smoking.
Conclusions: The results indicate that adults and older aged individuals in Erbil city have a high prevalence of root caries and high experience of root caries as expressed by root caries index and the prevalence of root caries was associates with these risk factors: Gingival index, Plaque index, unstimulated salivary flow rate, educational level, wearing removable partial dentures, frequency of snacks, tooth brushing and frequency of tooth brushing, systemic disease and use of medication while there was no association with smoking.
Peter S. Essentials of preventive and community dentistry. 3rd ed. New Delhi. Arya (Medi) Publishing House. 2006 P. 231-51.
Garg A and Garg N. Text book of operative dentistry. 2nd ed. India Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers. 2013 P. 54-85.
Ritter AV, Shugars DA and Bader JD. RC risk indicators a systemic review of risk models. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 2010; 38: 383-97.
Ivanovski KB, Apostolska SM, Pesevska SJ, Todovska SLj, Nineska. Periodontal disease and RC. Acta stomatologica Naissi; 2011 27(64)1097-103.
Christensen LB, Bardow A, Ekstrand K, Fiehn N, Heitmann RL, Qvist V, Twetman S. RC, root surface restorations and lifestyle factors in adult Danes. Acta Odontologica Scandinavia; 2015 73:467-73.
Qasim AA. Association of RC, oral hygiene and gingival health among adult population in Baghdad and Mosul City Center (A comparative study). Al-Rafidain Dent J; 2009 9(2): 238-45.
Khan AM (2014). Short handbook of operative dentistry: coimcos approach to operative dentisttry. 1st ed. Pakistan. Moiz Khan. P. 6-24.
WHO: Oral Health Surveys. Basic methods. 5th ed. Geneva, 2013.
Silness S and Löe H (1964). Periodontal disease in pregnancy II: correlation between oral hygiene and periodontal condition. Acta Odontol Scand.; 22: 121-35.
Löe H and Silness S (1963). Periodontal disease in pregnancy prevalence and severity. Acta. Odontol. Scand; 21: 533 – 551.
Katz RV (1980). Assessing RC in populations: the evolution of RC index. J Pubic Health Dent; 40(1):7-16.
Sreebny LM, Vissink A (2010). Dry mouth, the malevolent symptom: a clinical guide. 1st ed. USA. Blackwell. P. 65-6.
Carpenter G (2015). Dry mouth: a clinical guide on causes, effects and treatments. 1sted. Heidelberg. Springer-Verlag Berlin. P. 183-4.
Du M, Jiang H, tai B, Zhou Y, Wu B, Bian Z (2009). RC patterns and risk factors of middle- aged and elderly people in China. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol; 37(3):260-6.
Mamai-Homata E, Topitsoglou V, Oulis C, Margaritis V and polychronopoulou A (2012). Risk indicators of coronal and RC in Greek middle-aged adults and senior citizens. BMC Public Health; 12: 484.
Lynch E, Baysan A (2001). Reversal of primary RC using a dentifrice with a high fluoride content. Caries Res; 35(SUPPL.1): 60-4.
Winn DM, Brunelle JA, Selwitz RH, Kaste LM, Oldakowski RJ, Kingman A, Brown LJ (1996). Coronal and RC in the dentition of adults in the united states, 1988-1991.J Dent Res; 75(spec no): 642-51.
Al- Ani RS and Abdul- Razzak AM (2009). Prevalence and distribution of gingival recession and RC in a group of dental patients in Ramadi City, Iraq. J Bagh College Dentistry; 21(1):84-7.
Bharateesh JV and Kokila G (2014). Association of RC with oral habits in older individuals attending a rural health center of a dental hospital in India. J Clin Diagn Res; 8(11): ZC80-ZC82.
Watanable MGC (2003). RC prevalence in a group of Brazilian adult dental patients. Braz Dent J; 14(3): 153-6.
El-Rasheed AH (2006). Prevalence of RC among patients attending hospitals in Khartoum city. M. Sc. Thesis. University of Khartoum. Sudan.
Slot DE, Vaandrager NC, Vanloveren C, Vanpaleitein, Helder-Man WH, Vander Weijden GA (2011). The effect of chlorhexidine varnish on root caries: a systematic review. Caries Res; 45(2):162-73.
Kularatne S and Ekanayake L (2007). Root surface caries in older individuals from Sri Lanka. Caries Res; 41:252-6.
Banting DW (2001). The diagnosis of RC. J Dent Educ; 65:991-6.
Leake JL (2001). Clinical decision-making for caries management in root surfaces. J Dent Educ; 65:1147-53.
Chi DL, Berg JH, Kim AS, Scott J (2013). Correlate of RC experience in middle- aged and older adults in the northeast practice-based research collaborative in evidence-based dentistry research network. JADA; 144(5):507-16.
Dye BA, Tan S, Smith V, Lewis BG, Barker LK, Thornton-Evans G, Eke PI, Beltran- Aguilar ED, Horowitz AM, Li CH (2007). Trends in oral health status: United States, 1988-1994 and 1999-2004. Vital Health Stat; 11(248):1-92.
Lukacs JR, Largaespada LL (2006). Explaining sex differences in dental caries prevalence: saliva, hormones, and “life history” etiologies. Am J Hum Biol; 18(4): 540-55.
Gökalp S, Doğan BG (2012). RC in 35-44 and 65-74 year-olds in Turkey. Community Dent Health; 29(3): 233-8.
Kerr NW (1990). The prevalence and pattern of distribution of root caries in a Scottish medieval population. J Dent Res; 69(3):857-60.
Heegaard KM, Holm-Pedersen P, Bardow A, Hvidtfeldt UA, Gronbaek M, Avlund K (2011). The Copenhagen Oral Health Senior Cohort: design, population and dental health. Gerodontology; 28 (3):165–76.
Cappelli DP, Mobley CC (2008). Prevention in clinical oral health care.1st ed. USA. Elsivier Health sciences. P. 7. 45. Vehkalahti M, Paunio I (1994). Association between RC occurrence and periodontal state. Caries Res; 28: 301-6.
Hiremath SS (2011). Textbook of preventive and community dentistry. 2nd ed. India. Elsevier. P. 149-55.
Reiker J, van der Velden U, Barendregt DS, Loos BG (1999). A cross sectional study into the prevalence of RC in periodontal maintenance patients. J Clin Periodontol; 26(1):26-32.
Summitt JB (2006). Caries management and pulpal considerations. In: Fundamentals of operative dentistry: a contemporary approach. Summitt JP (editor). Chicago: Quintessence. P. 51-67.
Lei M (2010). Actions of chlorhexidine and Silver Diamine Fluoride on cariogenic biofilm and root caries. PhD thesis. University of Hong Kong.
Fejerskov O, Kidd EAM (2008). Dental caries: the disease and its clinical management. 2nd ed. UK. Blackwell, Munksgaard. P: 172.
Marsh PD, Martin MV, Lewis MA, Williams DW (2009). Dental Caries. In: Oral Microbiology. Livingstone: Churchill, P. 82-104.
Sugihara N, Maki Y, Okawa Y, Hosaka, M, Matsukubo T, Takaesu Y (2010). Factors associated with root surface caries in elderly. Bull Tokyo Dent Coll; 51(1): 23-30.
Qasim AA (2010). Risk factors influence on the prevalence and severity of RC in Mosul (rural and urban). Al-Rafidain Dent J; 10 (2): 348-56.
Gati D and Vieira AR (2011). Elderly at greater risk for RC: a look at the multifactorial risks with emphasis on genetic susceptibility. Int J Dent; 2011(4): 647168.
Papas AS, Joshi A, Palmer CA, Giunta JL, Dwyer JT (1995). Relationship of diet to RC. Am J Clin Nurt; 61(2): 423S-9S.
Steele JG, Sheiham A, Marcenes W, Fay N, Walls AW (2001). Clinical and behavioural risk indicators for RC in older people. Gerodontology; 18(2):95–101.
Wilson M (2009). Food constituents and oral health: current status and future prospects. UK. Woodhead publishing limited. P: 174.
Benedetti G, Campus G, Strohmenger L, Lingstrom P (2013). Tobacco and dental caries: a systematic review. Acta Odontol Scand; 71(3-4): 363–71.
Wright PS, Hellyer PH, Beighton D, Heath R, Lynch E (1992). Relationship of removable partial denture use to root caries in an older population. Int J Prosthodont; 5:39–46.
Preshaw PM, Walls AWG, Jakubovics NS, Moynihan PJ, Jepson NJA, Loewy Z (2011). Association of removable partial denture use with oral and systemic health. J Dent; 39(11): 711-9.
Vacaru R,Podariu AC, Jumanca D, Galuscan A, Mintean R (2003). Periodontal-restorative interrelationships. Oral Health Dent Med Bas Sci; 3(5):12-5. 67.
Dula LJ, Ahmedi EF, Lila-Krasniqi ZD, Shala KSh (2015). Clinical evaluation of removable partial dentures on the periodontal health of abutment teeth: a retrospective study. Open Dent J; 9:132-9.
Batista MJ, Rando- Meirelles MP, Souse Mda L (2014). Prevalence of RC among adults and the elderly in southeast Brazil. Rev Panam Salud Publica; 35 (1):23-9.
Alder NE and Newman K (2002). Socioeconomic disparities in health: pathways and policies. Health affairs (project hope); 21(2): 60-76.
Holm-Pedersen P, Avlund K, Morse DE, Stoltze K, Katz RV, Viitanen M, Winblad B (2005). Dental caries, periodontal disease, and cardiac arrhythmias in community-dwelling older persons aged 80 and older: is there a link? J Am Geriatr Soc; 53(3):430-7.
Kaneko M, Yoshihara A, Miyazaki H (2011). Relationship between root caries and cardiac dysrhythmia. Gerodontology; 28(4):289-95.
Kitamura M, Kiyak HA, Mulligan K (1986). Predictors of RC in the elderly (1986). Community Dent Oral Epidemiol; 14(1):34-8.
Saunders RH, Handelman SL (1992). Effects of hyposalivatory medications on saliva rates and dental caries in adults aged 65 or over. Spec Care Dent; 12(3):116–21.
Gilbert GH, Heft MW, Duncan RP (1993). Mouth dryness as reported by older Floridians. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol; 21:390–7.
Copyright (c) 2020 Tara Kamal Talib, Vian Omer Majeed (Author)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.