Surgically concerned anatomy of roots of lower third molar


  • Khurshid A. Kheder Kurdistan Board of Medical Sciences, Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan Region.
  • Sarkawt Ali Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, College of Dentistry, Hawler Medical University
  • Hassan Ali Mahmoud Albarzanji Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, College of Dentistry, Hawler Medical University



lower third molar, impaction, molar root anatomy, teeth anatomy


Background and Objectives: Root anatomy of lower third molar (LTM) may have variable patterns. Root number, shape and curvature all affecting the process of surgery. To determine frequency of different root patterns of LTM.

Patients and methods: Retrospectively, a total of 196 orthopantomograms of department of radiology were evaluated for LTM root number and curvature of roots.

Results: two roots 173 (88.26%) one root 22 (11.74%). All single rooted teeth showed no curvature. Among two rooted teeth the study figured out that majority of roots not fused but converge 134 (77.45%), fused together 20 (11.5%), not fused but diverge 11 (≈ 6%), not fused with root curvature.

Conclusion: Majority of LTM have two or more roots, they are convergent or divergent. Root anatomy evaluation before surgery is mandatory.


1. Lysell L. Current concepts and strategies for third molar removal. In: Lars Andersson, KarlErik Kahnberg, M. Anthony (Tony) Pogrel, editors. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 1 st ed. West Sussex UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010. p. 195-218.

2. Авдеева, Е. А., Евтухов В. Л. (2013) Болезни прорезывания зубов: классификация, клиника, диагностика, лечение: учеб.-метод. Пособие. Минск: БГМУ.

3. Coleman GC, Nelson JF. Principles of oral diagnosis. MOSBY 1993.

4. Eversole LR. Clinical outline of oral pathology: diagnosis and treatment, 4 th ed. USA Shelton, Connecticut: People’s medical publishing house; 2011. p. 601-2.

5. Balaji SM. Textbook of oral and maxillofacial surgery. Elsevier; 2009.

6. Derrick DD, Seward GR, Harris M, McGowan DA. (1987) Killey and Kay`s outline of oral surgery Part I, 2 nd ed. Bristol: Wright; 1987.

7. Juodzbalys G, Daugela P. Mandibular third molar impaction: Review of literature and a proposal of a Classification. 2013. URL:http:// v4n2e1ht.pdf.doi: 10.5037/jomr.2013.4201

8. Kruger GO. Textbook of oral and maxillofacial surgery. 6 th ed. Toronto: St.Louis; 1984.

9. Gulabivala K, Opasanon A, Ng YL, Alavi A. Root and canal morphology of Thai mandibular molars. Int Endod J 2002; 35(1):56-62.

10. Sidow SJ1, West LA, Liewehr FR, Loushine RJ. Root canal morphology of human maxillary and mandibular third molars. J Endod 2000; 26 (11):675-8.

11. Kuzekanani M, Haghani J, Nosrati H. Root and canal morphology of mandibular third molars in an Iranian population. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospect 2012; 6(3): 85–88.

12. Cosic J, Galic N, Vodanovic M, Njemirovskij V, Cegovic S, Pavelic B. An in vitro morphological investigation of the endodontic spaces of third molars. Coll Antropol 2013; 37(2): 437–442.




How to Cite

Kheder KA, Ali S, Albarzanji HAM. Surgically concerned anatomy of roots of lower third molar. EDJ [Internet]. 2020 Jun. 6 [cited 2022 Jun. 26];3(1):17-23. Available from:



Original Articles