Three dimensional analysis of dental arch form and dimensions in a sample of Kurdish students in Hawler Medical University.


  • Barzan Mahmood Department of POP, College of Dentistry, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.
  • Bayan Hassan Department of POP, College of Dentistry, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.



Arch form, Dental arch width and depth, intra-oral scanner, 3D analysis, 3D software


Background: This study aims to use 3D analysis to compare male and female upper and lower dental arch forms in untreated Kurdish medical students, find differences in shape, transversal and longitudinal diameters between genders, and provide clinicians with a representative set of the population's dental arch to provide appropriate orthodontic treatment.

Methods: The sample consisted of 3D scans by the intra-oral scanner of maxillary and mandibular dental arches deriving from 111 Kurdish medical students (Male = 51, Female = 60) in permanent dentition. the arch form was evaluated by linear values and ratios by mathematical calculation on every patient using a 3shap ortho analyzer software .paired t-test and fisher's exact Test were used to determine if the differences in measurements between maxillary, mandibular, male, and female groups were significant. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05.

Results: There were significant differences in upper and lower transversal and longitudinal diameters. Male arch widths were significantly greater than female arch widths. In addition, males had significantly larger intercanine, intermolar, and interpremolar diameters than females. The female group had significantly less dental arch depth.

Conclusions: Based on the anatomical arches differences between genders in Kurdish students, it is suggested that each patient's pretreatment arch form, width, and depth during orthodontic treatment be considered according to gender.


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How to Cite

Mahmood B, Hassan B. Three dimensional analysis of dental arch form and dimensions in a sample of Kurdish students in Hawler Medical University. EDJ [Internet]. 2023 Jun. 30 [cited 2023 Sep. 27];6(1):1-9. Available from:



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